The South Korean government is employing measures to help get the country’s housing market back on track, with prices ticking up after poor performance in the second quarter of 2010. The Korean Statistical Information Service reported 1.34% price increase after inflation through the three months leading up to April 2011, reflecting the best gains South Korea has seen since 2007. The government’s new measures include cutting home-purchase taxes and creating a haven for toxic construction and mortgage loans to give banks more room to ease lending restrictions. The economy is improving, lower interest rates have further fueled lending and tax breaks are encouraging buyers in the recharged real estate market. For more on this continue reading the following article from Global Property Guide.
House prices in South Korea are rising again, after falling in the second half of 2010.
Over the three months to April 2011, nationwide house prices increased by 2.62% (1.34% in real terms), the highest quarterly rise since March 2007, according to the Korean Statistical Information Service. House prices rose by 4.15% during the year to April 2011. However, when adjusted for inflation, house prices were actually unchanged in April 2011 from a year earlier.
The government plans more measures to help the housing market, including slashing home purchase taxes from 2%-4% to 1%-2%. In August 2010, the government eased restrictions on real estate lending.
In addition, the government plans to establish a “bad bank” – the Project Financing Stabilization Bank (PFSB) – to aid the ailing construction sector and mortgage market through purchasing KRW 1 trillion (US$935.5 million) worth of bad project-finance (PF) loans. Eight local banks will participate.
Weak consumption caused property transactions fall by 35.8% y-o-y to September 2010, according to the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. Seoul and other metropolitan areas suffered worst.
In 2010, the economy grew by 6.11%, after a real GDP growth rate of 0.2% in 2009. The economy grew by 4.2% and 3.4% in Q1 and Q2 2011, respectively.
In August 2011, the annual inflation rate rose to 5.3%, the highest in three years.
Foreigners can buy freely in South Korea, except for acquisition of land located in development-restricted zones.
Back when house prices were rising
The Seoul house price index inched up in 2009, rising 3.6% (2.8% in real terms) from April to October 2009. Nationally, the house price index rose 2.1% (1.3% in real terms) over the same period, according to data from Koomin Bank.
However the government moved swiftly to tighten loan conditions, to forestall a perceived housing bubble. In July, it reduced loan-to-value ratios from 60% to 50% for the purchase of properties in Seoul and other urban areas. It also instructed banks to scrutinize borrowers’ income when granting loans.
Real estate transactions have now turned sluggish. Apartment transactions in Seoul were down 16.6% from the previous month in October, but in Seoul’s luxurious southern districts such as Gangnam, Seocho and Songpa, transactions totaled a mere 893, half that of the previous month ? the lowest level this year.
In Korea, every time residential property prices rise sharply, the government intervenes. For instance in 2006, when the index rose 18.9% (16.4% in real terms) in Seoul, capital gains taxes fore properties in “speculative areas” were hiked.
House price rises slowed in 2007 to 5.4% in Seoul (1.75% in real terms) and 3.1% nationally (0.6% in real terms). In 2008, house price rises were a mere 5% for Seoul (0.86% after inflation) and 3.1% nationally (-1.5% after inflation).
The quick recovery of house prices in 2009 may be attributed to:
- government spending and tax breaks to households;
- increased financial system liquidity; and
- optimism that the economy is set to improve.
Korea’s economic record is good
Korea’s economy succumbed to recession during the first half of 2009. The economy has bounced back beginning Q3 2009, expanding by 1% from a year earlier. Strong year-on-year rises were recorded since then- 6% in Q4 2009, 8.10% in Q1 2010 and 7.20% in Q2 2010. The economy is expected to grow by 6.1% by the end of 2010.
The government played a big role in Korea’s quick economic recovery. The government has reduced taxes, as well as interest rates. In January 2009, the government announced KRW50 trillion (US$38 billion) investments over four years for major infrastructure and environmental projects to create 960,000 jobs. In February 2009 came a US$37 billion credit guarantee to firms, and tax cuts for homeowners.
To stabilize the foreign exchange markets, the Bank of Korea supplied financial institutions with US$22.4 billion in Q1 2009 through swap transactions and foreign currency loans, using the proceeds of currency swaps with the US Federal Reserve. The government also injected US$30 billion worth of liquidity into the banking system.
With the renewed strength of the economy, the government is expected to gradually withdraw its supportive policies. The process has begun in July 2010, when the Bank of Korea raised the key interest rate from a record-low of 2% to 2.25%.
Mortgage lending is strong
Mortgage loans resumed their double-digit growth in 2009, growing by 10.6% y-o-y in the first three quarters, significantly up on 5% growth during the same period in 2008. From 2003 to 2008, the outstanding mortgage-to-GDP ratio rose from 19.9% to 23.9%. Loans have risen much faster than the deposit base, so the average loan-to-deposit ratio stands at 130. Banks finance their deficit by overseas borrowings.
Tax breaks are helping owners
In 2008, the government rationalized the capital gains tax, lowering the tax burden on mid-income households. In case of households owning only one house:
- deductions have been expanded to 10 years;
- the price level eligible for capital gains tax exemption has been raised to KRW 900 million (US$781,000) from KRW 600 million (US$521,000);
- tax burden has been reduced by 3 percentage points, and now ranges from 6% to 33%, down from 9% to 36% (in line with the income tax rate);
- the residence requirement has been tightened, so that the capital gains tax benefit can only be enjoyed by owner-occupiers
In September 2008, to boost construction, the government adjusted the Comprehensive Real Estate Holding Tax (CRHT) for houses, raising the tax base from KRW600 million (US$521,000) to KRW900 million (US$781,900). CRHT rates were lowered to 0.5% – 1%, from 1% – 3%. Senior citizens (aged 60 or more) will get an additional 10% to 30% tax cut, if they own only one house.
Low interest rates propel recovery
The housing market’s quick recovery was propelled by low interest rates. Around 80% to 95% of new housing loans approved in South Korea are on floating interest rates, making the mortgage market sensitive to interest rate changes. Base rates fell from 5.25% in September 2008 to a historic low of 2.0% in February 2009, where they remained for the rest of the year.
When global interest rates started rising 2007 due to inflationary pressures, South Korea also adjusted its key rates upwards. Interest rates on housing loans rose to 7.08% in January 2008, declined slightly then inched up to 7.42% in November 2008. But they then fell to around 5.25% in Q2 2009, gradually rising again to 5.90% in December 2009. Interest rates started to fall again in 2010, to 4.81% in August 2010.
President Lee has been a disappointment
South Korea started 2008 on a note of optimism, with President Lee Myung-bak’s inauguration in February. The former Hyundai Construction CEO and mayor of Seoul was expected to bring economic and administrative competence. Lee ran on a platform of “Economy, First!” in sharp contrast to the erratic policies of left-of-centre former president Roh-Moo-hyun.
However President Lee’s first few months were wasted dealing with the unpopular US beef trade agreement, reducing his political capital.
Then the international financial crisis hit. Global demand for Korea’s electronic goods, semiconductors and automobiles slowed, adding to pressure on the Won. The South Korean won (KRW) quickly depreciated from KRW915 per US dollar in October 2008, to KRW1,453 per dollar in March 2009. Investors, alarmed by Korean corporations’ leverage levels, dumped more than US$37 billion worth of stocks in 2008.
Better economic condition has helped the Korean won to appreciate in 2010. By August 2010, the average exchange rate was KRW1,180 per US dollar.
Serious low-end housing oversupply
South Korea has a very long history of interventions in the housing market to deter speculation or lower house prices. Sadly, this intervention has had disastrous results.
To bring down prices, the government, beginning with Kim Dae-Jung (1998-2003) gave tax-breaks for the construction of five million housing units within ten years or around 500,000 units per year, including many low-income rental units. Left-of-center Roh Moo-hyun (2003-2008) felt that average house prices were beyond the reach of average Koreans (in Seoul´s most popular neighborhoods, three-bedroom apartments can now cost $2 million, about 100 times the average national income). He introduced a number of measures to slow price gains, including raising capital gains taxes by as much as 60%, and limiting the size of some bank loans so that monthly payments do not exceed 40% of a borrower´s monthly income.
Yet ironically, South Korea faces an alarming glut of new housing over the next 5 years. The country´s construction industry is grappling with a large number of unsold apartments. Potential homebuyers have taken a wait-and-see attitude since early last year.
It doesn’t help that transaction costs in South Korea are among the highest in Asia and developed countries.
As a result, the country´s construction industry is grappling with a large number of unsold apartments. The ratio of housing units to households has increased from 72.4% in 1990 to 108.1% in 2007, and is expected to reach 116.7% in 2012.
The number of unsold apartments is now the highest in 11 years, with 129,858 unsold apartments in August 2008, according to the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs. An official at the Construction Association of Korea, a lobby group, has warned that the number continues to pile up, more than 200 builders will be out of business by the year´s end.
Unique rental system hits young people
In Korea’s unique chonsei (or jeongsei) rental system, the tenant pays a lump-sum amount of deposit to the owner for the use of the property, with no additional requirement for periodic rent payments. The deposit is fully refunded at the end of contract period with no interest.
The Chonsei system eliminates the likelihood of tenant’s default on monthly rent as the deposit is maximized until the end of the contract period. However, the lump-sum deposit, equivalent to 70% to 80% of the property value, imposes a huge burden for younger renters and new households.
According to Population and Housing Census Report 2000, 54% of households are in owner occupied houses while 28% are under chonsei contracts. The remaining 18% is under a monthly rental system called wolse.
This article was republished with permission from Global Property Guide.